Notes

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ICAO recommended Airport Signs, Runway and Taxiway Markings

ICAO shares Standards and Recommended Practices(SARPs) for airport signs, runway and taxiway markings, mandatory instruction signs, information signs, mandatory instruction markings, runway holding position markings, etc. via Annex 14, Aerodromes. MANDATORY INSTRUCTION SIGNS A mandatory instruction sign indicates a location beyond which an airplane may not proceed unless authorized by air traffic control. At uncontrolled …

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Takeoff Speed Optimization – Speed Ratios V1/Vr and V2/Vs

Takeoff optimization principal has objective of attaining highest possible performance limited takeoff weight while fulfilling airworthiness requirements. Parameters influencing takeoff performance can be Sustained Parameters (can’t be changed) and Free Parameters(variable to certain extent). As part of free parameters takeoff speed optimization is the most important method to gain better takeoff performance and hence higher …

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TOD, TOR and ASD – Post Amendment 42 (TODR, TORR and ASDR)

With respect to performance, different aircrafts are certified at different times and comply with different certification rules. Three major certifications rules were defined as: FAR Part 25 – no consideration for reaction time of pilot Amendment to FAR Part 25 known as Amendment 25-42 – over consideration of reaction time Post Amendment 42 – current …

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Limitation Codes – on RTOW Charts by OCTOPUS

Over the past decades, the global aviation industry has experienced a precarious balance between revenues and costs. Besides, the modern economy is living through an economic recession and so oil prices are now higher than they’ve ever been. Therefore, all over Globe, airlines need to adapt to the competitive world of commercial air travel. Optimization …

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Takeoff Segments and Climb Requirements with Gross Flight Path and Net Flight Path

This study note covers the information on Takeoff Path, Takeoff Flight Path, Takeoff Segments, Takeoff Climb Requirements along with information on gross flight path and net flight path. Takeoff Path Takeoff path extends from standing start to point at which aircraft is at height: of 1500 ft above the takeoff surface, or at which transition …

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Maximum Structural Weights

Manufacturer’s Empty Weight (MEW) It is the weight of structure, power plant, furnishings, systems and other items of equipment that are considered an integral part of the aircraft. It is dry weight including only those fluids which are contained in closed systems(e.g. hydraulic fluid). Operational Empty Weight (OEW) It is the sum of manufacturer’s empty …

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Clearway, Stopway, TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA| Declared Runway Distances

Following are the available take-off lengths declared by appropriate authorities and ICAO for for different airfields. Knowledge on these terms is important for performance calculations. Clearway, Stopway, TORA, TODA, ASDA & LDA CLEARWAY Clearway is the area beyond the runway not less than 152m wide centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway and under the …

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Fuel Policy – Fuel Planning Requirements – Minimum Fuel Requirements – DGCA – ICAO

Fuel Policy – Fuel Planning Requirements – Minimum Fuel Requirements – DGCA – ICAO. When is destination alternate aerodrome required?  At least one destination alternate aerodrome is required for the IFR flights except for the under-mentioned cases: 1. Duration of flight is such that at the destination: Approach and landing may be made under VMC …

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