El Nino and La Nina on world map

ENSO, Southern Oscillation, El Nino and La Nina Explained

El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate phenomenon that occurs every two to seven years. Sir Gilbert Walker discovered “the Southern Oscillation” or large-scale changes in sea level pressure from Indonesia and the tropical Pacific Ocean. He didn’t realize that it was related to changes in the Pacific Ocean or El Niño. …

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Alpha-Floor-and-High-Angle-of-Attack-Protection

Alpha Floor Protection and High Angle of Attack Protection

This content has been published after getting repeated queries via site’s contact us page and our A320 technical forum’s topics. To most, in fact all, of the senior Airbus pilots both these terms must be clear but some new ones face challenges in relating both. Before writing subjective explanation following are main points to understand …

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Oxygen System [Question Bank Airbus A320]

1. What type of Oxygen system is present in Airbus A320 Aircraft? A320 Oxygen System consists of: Cockpit Fixed Oxygen System Cabin Fixed Oxygen System Portable Oxygen System This is diluter demand type system where compressed oxygen is stored in cylinder/s. Oxygen flow can be controlled as per crew requirements. Pressure of oxygen cylinder/s is …

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Ice and Rain Protection System [Question Bank Airbus A320]

1. How is Airbus A320 aircraft protected against icing? Hot air or electrical heating protects the critical areas of aircraft. Hot Air Electrical Heating three outboard leading-edge slats of each wing engine air intakes flight compartment windows sensors, pilot probes and static ports waste water drain mast 2. How is windshield protected against icing? Windshield …

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Scalars and Vectors in physics

TOD, TOR and ASD – Post Amendment 42 (TODR, TORR and ASDR)

With respect to performance, different aircrafts are certified at different times and comply with different certification rules. Three major certifications rules were defined as: FAR Part 25 – no consideration for reaction time of pilot Amendment to FAR Part 25 known as Amendment 25-42 – over consideration of reaction time Post Amendment 42 – current …

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Limitation Codes – on RTOW Charts by OCTOPUS

Over the past decades, the global aviation industry has experienced a precarious balance between revenues and costs. Besides, the modern economy is living through an economic recession and so oil prices are now higher than they’ve ever been. Therefore, all over Globe, airlines need to adapt to the competitive world of commercial air travel. Optimization …

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Clearway, Stopway, TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA| Declared Runway Distances

Following are the available take-off lengths declared by appropriate authorities and ICAO for for different airfields. Knowledge on these terms is important for performance calculations. Clearway, Stopway, TORA, TODA, ASDA & LDA CLEARWAY Clearway is the area beyond the runway not less than 152m wide centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway and under the …

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